1) Transit Oriented Development (TOD) refers to residential and Commercial Centers designed to maximize access by Transit and Nonmotorized transportation, and with other features to Encourage Transit Ridership. A typical TOD has a rail or bus station at its center, surrounded by relatively high-density development, with progressively lower-density spreading outwards one-quarter to one-half mile, which represents pedestrian scale distances. It includes these design features: 1) The neighborhood is designed for Cycling and Walking, with adequate facilities and attractive street conditions; 2) Streets have good Connectivity and Traffic Calming features to control vehicle traffic speeds; 3) Mixed-use development that includes shops, schools and other public services, and a variety of housing types and prices, within each neighborhood; 4) Parking Management to reduce the amount of land devoted to parking compared with conventional development, and to take advantage of the parking cost savings associated with reduced automobile use; and 5) Transit Stops and Stations that are convenient, comfortable and secure, with features such as comfortable waiting areas, real time vehicle arrival info, venders, washrooms, & information.; 2) Transit oriented development (TOD) generally refers to higher-density development, with pedestrian priority, located within easy walking distance of a major public transit station or stop(s). TODs are viewed as offering the potential to boost transit ridership, increase walking activity, mitigate sprawl, accommodate growth, and create interesting places. TOD projects potentially involve a wider variety of stakeholders than other development projects, reflecting in part the more extensive involvement of transit agencies and government funding sources. TOD stakeholders may have a wide range of complementary or competing objectives. Travel-related objectives include: 1) Increasing the opportunities for residents and workers to meet daily needs by taking transit or walking; 2) Attracting new riders to public transit, including so-called choice ridersriders who could otherwise choose to drive; 3) Shifting the transit station mode of access to be less reliant on park-and-ride and more oriented to walking; 4) Reducing the automobile ownership, vehicular traffic, and associated parking requirements that would otherwise be necessary to support a similar level of more traditional development; and 5) Enhancing the environment, through reduced emissions and energy consumption derived from shifts in commuting, other trip making, and station access to environmentally friendly travel modes. Non-transportation objectives may include providing desirable and affordable housing choices, enhancing sense of community and quality of life, supporting economic development or revitalization, shifting development from sensitive areas, minimizing infrastructure costs, and reducing sprawl. Financial return is among the motivating factors for at least some of the stakeholders, including, in some cases, the transit agencies involved. Rents, for example, are potentially a significant source of non-farebox revenue accruing from development on system-owned land adjacent to transit stations.