Social cohesion is a multi-faceted notion covering many different kinds of social phenomena. There are five different dimensions of social cohesion: material conditions, passive relationships, active relationships, inclusion and equality.The first dimension, material conditions, is fundamental to social cohesion, particularly employment, income, health, education and housing. Relations between and within communities suffer when people lack work and endure hardship, debt, anxiety, low self-esteem, ill-health, poor skills and bad living conditions. These basic necessities of life are the foundations of a strong social fabric and important indicators of social progress. The second basic tenet of cohesion is social order, safety and freedom from fear, or passive social relationships. Tolerance and respect for other people, along with peace and security, are hallmarks of a stable and harmonious urban society. The opposite is lack of acceptance of social and cultural differences, along with conflict and crime, hence stress, insecurity and instability. The third dimension refers to the positive interactions, exchanges and networks between individuals and communities, or active social relationships. Such contacts and connections are potential resources for places since they offer people and organisations mutual support, information, trust and credit of various kinds. The opposite is misunderstanding, suspicion, mistrust and resentment, which undermine social well-being. The fourth dimension is about the extent of social inclusion or integration of people into the mainstream institutions of civil society. It also includes peoples sense of belonging to a city and the strength of shared experiences, identities and values between those from different backgrounds do they have a genuine stake in local society and pull together? The opposite is social or residential segregation, social exclusion, disaffection and isolation. Lastly, social equality refers to the level of fairness or disparity in access to opportunities or material circumstances, such as income, health or quality of life, or in future life chances. The opposite is a high level of inequality in living standards or very unequal prospects for upward social mobility. This may be associated with frustration, envy and resentment experienced by those lower down the scale, which can damage overall social welfare in a variety of ways.